(Continued from the previous article:-
Similarity between Punjabi and Hindi)
Similarity In Vowel Symbols:
Independent Vowels in Gurmukhi and Davanagari
In Hindi there are 11 Vowels including ऋ that is taken from Sanskrit,
because a lot of Sanskrit words are used in Hindi as it is, but in Punjabi
there is no such letter like ऋ, so the other 10 Vowels are same in both
Devanagari- अ आ इ ई उ ऊ ऋ ए ऐ ओ औ
Gurmukhi – ਅ ਆ ਇ ਈ ਉ ਊ — ਏ ਐ ਓ ਔ
Besides these symbols, Punjabi has two more symbols ਓ and ੲ.
These two symbols are mainly Maatra Vahak. In Hindi no such
symbols are available. The nearest phonetic letters are उ and इ , respectively.
The vowels are complete and independent letters and
except अ, each vowel has a symbol, also known as, Maatraa.
Dependent Vowels ( Symbols / Maatraas ) in
Gurmukhi and Devanagari:
अ has no maatraa
अ (x )आ (ा) इ (ि ) ई (ी ) उ (ु ) ऊ (ू )
ऋ (ृ ) ए (े ) ऐ (ै ) ओ (ो ) औ (ौ )
ਅ (x )(ा) ਆ (ा) ਇ (ि ) ਈ (ी ) ਉ (ु ) ਊ (ू ) —
ਏ (े ) ਐ (ै ) ਓ ( ) ਔ ( ).
Similarities And Dissimilarities in Consonants Of Both Scripts
All the consonants in Hindi from क to ह except ष
are same in Punjabi.In Punjabi there is no such
Double sound producing syllables are also not there in
Punjabi like क्ष त्र ज्ञ श्र
In Hindi half consonants are also used as अन्तर, सम्बन्ध,
sometimes showing the half consonants using halant in
Sanskrit words, used in Hindi as सन्, षट्कोण,साक्षात् etc.
In Punjabi some conjunct consonants are there as pareen
vava, pareen haha, Pareen rara e.g ਪ੍ਰੀਤਮ, ਬੁਲ੍ਹੜ, ਸ੍ਵਰਗ.
In Hindi we write these words as प्रीतम, बुल्हड़, स्वर्ग.
One more character is present in Hindi called Visarg
like प्रातः, अक्षरशः etc. Visarg is in Sanskrit words which are
used in Hindi as it is.
In Hindi usage of consonant र is in three forms, somewhere
it is used as a consonant e.g अन्तरमन, somewhere it is used as Maatraa under the foot of the consonant like: क्रम and on the head of the consonant e.g अन्तर्मन, पुनर्जन्म.
Anuswara or Bindi: (लंबा ) and Anunaasik or Chandrabindu: (चाँद) ) are the symbols showing nasal sounds in Hindi. Tippee
(ੰ ) and Bindee ( ਂ ) are the symbols for nasal sounds in Punjabi
e.g ਅੰਬ, ਪਤੰਗ, ਕਾਂ, ਕੁੜੀਆਂ etc.
Some Persian sounds क़ ख़ ग़ ज़ फ़ are also used in both the languages and one more sound ਲ਼ has been added to Punjabi.