Similarity between Punjabi and Hindi ( Part 2)

 (Continued from the previous article:-

Similarity between Punjabi and Hindi)

Similarity  In Vowel Symbols:

Independent Vowels in Gurmukhi and Davanagari

In Hindi there are 11 Vowels including ऋ that is taken from Sanskrit,

 because a lot of Sanskrit words are used in Hindi as it is, but in Punjabi

 there is no such letter like ऋ, so the other 10 Vowels are same in both

 the languages.

Devanagari- अ     उ          

Gurmukhi –   ਆ    ਈ  ਉ  ਊ   —       ਐ  ਓ   

Besides these symbols, Punjabi has two more symbols and .

These two symbols are mainly Maatra Vahak. In Hindi no such

symbols are available. The nearest phonetic letters areand , respectively.

 

The vowels are complete and independent letters and

 except  अ, each vowel has a symbol, also known as,  Maatraa.

 Dependent Vowels ( Symbols / Maatraas ) in

 Gurmukhi and Devanagari:

 अ has no maatraa

अ (x )आ (ा) इ (ि )  ई (ी )   उ (ु )  ऊ (ू )

ऋ (ृ ) ए (े )  ऐ (ै ) ओ (ो )  औ (ौ )

(x )(ा) (ा)   (ि ) (ी )   (ु ) (ू )  —

(े )  (ै )  ( ) ਔ   ( ).

 Similarities And Dissimilarities in Consonants Of Both Scripts

 All the consonants in Hindi from to except

are same in Punjabi.In Punjabi there is no such

consonant

Double sound producing syllables are also not there in

Punjabi like क्ष त्र ज्ञ  श्र

 

In Hindi half consonants are also used as अन्तर, सम्बन्ध,

 sometimes showing the half consonants using halant in

 Sanskrit words, used in Hindi as सन्, षट्कोण,साक्षात् etc.

 In Punjabi some conjunct consonants are there as pareen

vava, pareen haha, Pareen rara e.g ਪ੍ਰੀਤਮ, ਬੁਲ੍ਹੜ, ਸ੍ਵਰਗ.

In Hindi we write these words as प्रीतम, बुल्हड़, स्वर्ग.

 One more character is present in Hindi called Visarg

like प्रातः, अक्षरशः etc. Visarg is in Sanskrit words which are

 used in Hindi as it is.

 In Hindi usage of consonant is in three forms, somewhere

 it is used as a consonant e.g अन्तरमन, somewhere it is used as Maatraa under the foot of the consonant like: क्रम and on the head of the consonant e.g अन्तर्मन, पुनर्जन्म.

 Anuswara or Bindi: (लंबा ) and Anunaasik or Chandrabindu: (चाँद) ) are the symbols showing  nasal sounds in Hindi. Tippee

 (ੰ ) and Bindee  ( ਂ )  are the symbols for nasal sounds in Punjabi

e.g  ਅੰਬ, ਪਤੰਗ, ਕਾਂ, ਕੁੜੀਆਂ etc.

 Some Persian sounds क़ ख़ ग़ ज़ फ़ are also used in both the languages and one more sound ਲ਼ has been added to Punjabi.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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